- Handbook of Membrane Separations
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Final determination of the suitability of any information, procedure, or product for use contemplated by any user, and the manner of that use, is the sole responsibility of the user.
The book is intended for informational purposes only. Expert advice should be obtained at all times when implementation is being considered.
Preface This handbook emphasizes the use of synthetic membranes for separations involving industrial or municipal process streams. Little will be said concerning the use of membranes in medical applications as in artificial kidneys or for controlled drug release. Most of the membrane processes are pressure driven. The notable exception to this is electrodialysis ED by which ions are separated under the influence of an electric field.
In addition, the chapter on coupled transport covers processes which are driven under the influence of a concentration gradient. With the exception of pervaporation, which is just beginning to emerge as an industrial process, each of the above will be covered in a separate chapter. The pressure driven liquid filtration processes MF, UF, and RO may be distinguished by the size of the particle or molecule the membrane is capable of retaining or passing.
This roughly relates to the pore-size of the membrane. Figure P.
Membrane foul-ing causes a loss of water production flux , reduced permeate quality, and increased trans-membrane pressure drop. Membrane fouling is typically caused by precipitation of inorganic salts, particulates of metal oxides, colloidal silt, and the accumulation or growth of microbiological organisms on the membrane surface. These fouling problems can lead to serious damage and necessitate more frequent replacement of membranes.
Membrane feedwater should be relatively free from colloidal particulates. The most common particulates encountered in industrial membrane systems are silt, iron oxides, and manganese oxides. Silt Density Index SDI testing should be used to confirm sufficient water quality for the specific membrane system employed.
SDI evaluates the potential of feedwater to foul a 0. Unacceptable SDI measurements can be produced even when water quality is relatively high by most industrial water treatment standards. Where pretreatment is inadequate or ineffective, chemical dispersants may be used to permit operation at higher-than-recommended SDI values.
Handbook of Membrane Separations
Membrane processes produce a concentration gradient of dissolved salts approaching the membrane surfaces. The concentration at the membrane may exceed the solubility limits of certain species. Silica, barium, and strontium salts are also frequently identified in membrane deposits. Because of their low solubility, very low levels of feedwater barium or strontium can cause membrane fouling.
Various saturation indexes, such as the Stiff-Davis and Langelier, should be maintained below precipitating values in the brine through pH control or deposit control agents to prevent calcium carbonate fouling. Other precipitates may be controlled by the proper application of deposit control agents. Cellulose acetate membranes can be degraded by microbiological activity. Proper maintenance of chlorine residuals can prevent microbiological attack of these membranes. Polyacrylamide membranes are resistant to microbiological degradation; however, they are susceptible to chemical oxidation.
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Therefore, chlorination is not an acceptable treatment. If inoculation occurs, microbiological fouling can become a problem. Nonoxidizing antimicrobials and biodispersants should be used if serious microbiological fouling potential exists. Chapter 09 - Membrane Systems. Membrane processes Pretreatment Solids removal Scale control Microbiological fouling Since the 's, ion exchange resins have been used to remove dissolved salts from water.
Reverse Osmosis Osmosis is the flow of solvent through a semi-permeable membrane, from a dilute solution to a concentrated solution. Electrodialysis Electrodialysis ED processes transfer ions of dissolved salts across membranes, leaving purified water behind. Drawing on the experience of international experts, Membrane Technology in Water and Wastewater Treatment encompasses many practical applications of specific membranes, including MF, UF, NF, RO and EDR, in the treatment of ground and surface water, backwashwater, seawater, and industrial and domestic wastewater.
daatherguiran.gq - Books about membranes and membrane systems
Novel applications, process enhancements and the latest systems are also discussed. This book is an excellent guide to membrane technology and will be of great interest to water companies, industrialists, legislative bodies and anyone with an interest in the technology or its applications.
It will serve as a valuable reference for those with an interest in synthesis of polyimides, the chemistry and physical chemistry of polyimide compounds, the separation properties of membranes and in their preparation and application. It is intended as a summary of the current status of polyimide membrane research for the specialist as well as a teaching aid for graduate studies in polymer chemistry.
The authors collaboration demonstrates the high level of scientific research in Russia and the active development of applied research in Japan. Table of Contents - Preface 1 Introduction.
Trends in Polyimide Membrane Development by S. It includes recent research on wastewater treatment purification. From the Back Cover The definitive reference on this important method of water treatment! Experts agree that the use of membranes has emerged as a key means of water treatment in the s and is likely to be the method of choice into the next century. This comprehensive book brings you the method of choice into the next century. This comprehensive information currently available in this rapidly growing and important new field. Prepared by a group of international experts, the book covers membrane filtration issues for drinking water as well as research on the purification treatment of wastewater.
No other source will provide such detailed information on: Membrane applications; Categories of membrane technologies; Multiphase membrane processes; Reverse osmosis and nanfiltration index; Ultrafiltration and microfiltration; Electrodialysis; Field evaluation and piloting; Coagulation and a membrane separation. Sure to become a standard reference for the water supply professional, this authoritative book belongs on the shelf of all civil and environmental engineers. Basic Principles of Membrane Technology Marcel Mulder Kluwer Academic Publishers, October ISBN X The field of synthetic membrane science and technology is an active, growing field involving an interdisciplinary mixture of polymer chemistry, physical chemistry, and chemical engineering.
Some membrane processes are reasonably well understood, and have been commercialised for some period of time.
Other membrane processes have only recently been employed in commercial applications, and still other processes are only in formative research stages. This volume gives a comprehensive compendium of the basic principles in the field of synthetic membranes. The following topics are covered: basic aspects of membrane processes; materials and material properties; membrane preparation and characterisation; membrane transport; concentration polarisation and fouling; process and module design.
The second edition of this well-established text has been expanded and updated, and many chapters now contain sections giving solved and unsolved problems. Ausgehend von klar dargestellten Grundlagen werden die Werkzeuge und Methoden der Auslegung von Membranverfahren erarbeitet und an Beispielen demonstriert.