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A Comparative Analysis of European Welfare States, 1st Edition
Contents:
  1. Centre for Policy on Ageing - Policies on Ageing -
  2. Measurement tool for active ageing policies
  3. Book Details
  4. Population ageing: Facing the challenge

According to the N ational S tatistical I nstitute, at the end of November the factor of u nemployment in Bulgaria was 8.

Their number is about , or This category of unemployed increase s by 8, people 9. The majority of them are people with no qualification nor speciality The number of long - term unemployed people is 39 , monthly average. B oth groups have relatively broad professional experience , social experience and experience in learning. The state has taken measures to overcome the effects of the global crisis and revive the national economy.

The following changes have been envisaged: reduc tion of the social insurance and tax burden, retention of tax levels , figh against illegal business and other. A number of laws, regulations and decrees have been enforced to regulate unemployment and promot e employment : L aw on encouragement of employment , the Employment Strategy, National Action Plan on Employment and others. M any European and national programs have started and are implemented throughout the country. They aim a t chang ing or furthering qualification s of the employed and unemployed, improving the access to education and training, increas ing the labor supply and quality of workforce , reduc ing the mass layoffs and leav e of employees who, for economic reasons , are not paid full monthly salary.

The programs are aimed at different target groups formed on bas is of age and social or professional status, education level and type of training and other s. One goal of these programs is related to the professional realization of people over They are to be given the option to acquire, change their qualifications or to increase them in accordance with the current requirements of the labor market, which will help to extend their work activity and create conditions for their continued employment. Unemployed people of pre-retirement age are one of the priority groups for active policy.

Despite all measures taken by the government in terms of reducing the unemployment among elderly people, the analysis show that employers are still reluctant to hire people from this age group. A survey was conducted to determine public opinion of training and employment of elderly people. The results of the survey could be summarized as follows: People over 45 have longer life experience and established work habits - factors that in some cases could even be a priority in selecting staff. One of the main area of training and retraining of elderly people is ICT.

New technologies are now an integral part of almost all professions , so acquiring such skills is particularly important. Internet jobs of new generation will be increasingly demanded in recent years. Here is an example of how ICT can benefit the employment of people over 45 years - now in Bulgaria call centers are one of the few companies that continue to recruit new employees during the crisis.

In the field of outsourcing services at least thousand people can work in the country. C all centers are staffed by people of different ages, education and nationality. Call centres perform part of the activities of a company, usually related to serving its end users. Who are the Seniors?

Centre for Policy on Ageing - Policies on Ageing -

Population aging factors:. Some statistics:. Barriers in front of elderly people seeking employment :. Social isolation and self-isolation:. Labour market participation:. Barriers for employers to hire elderly people :. Team work. Assistance needed. Financial or other costs. Potential areas of employment :.

Types of skills required:. Legal framework and initiatives :. Tendencies in the process of educating elderly people:. Adult education in Bulgaria focuses on:. Adult education in Bulgaria is a polycentric system which includes structures of formal and informal education:. Basic conclusions :. Recent development of Estonia after the collapse of the Soviet Union has often given relatively more opportunities to younger people.

Measurement tool for active ageing policies

Fast changes during this interim-period have increased the negative attitude towards the older generation as some of them have not always been able to adopt to significant changes in the society. At the beginning of this interim-period the number of working Estonians decreased quite abruptly and because of the changes in the economy the employment of older people decreased the most.


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The rate of employment. The rate of employment differs greatly between different age groups. There are more workers among the people who have higher education level. There are no differences regarding nationality but the rate of employment is higher within native Estonians. One of the most important reasons for this is probably their better skill of Estonian language while compared to other people non-Estonians evaluate their knowledge of the national language lower.

The older people are also more involved with the 1st policy makers, high clerks and company leaders and 2nd high specialists level occupations. At the same time there are more manual labourers among them as well. We also have quite many older people working as teachers, doctors, nurses and socialworkers in the healt care-, education- and social systems. Is this good or bad? We can often hear people saying that there are too many old people working as teachers and doctors. Aging doctor, teacher, socialworker is not a bad thing. A specialist who is continiously improving himself and loves his speciality is very valuable because of their knowledge and experience gained through life, which also balances the inexperience of their young colleagues and ensures the continuity.

There are many jobs where the empoyers see older people as better candidates since they are more dependable and experienced. The position differs greatly considering sex and nationality. Among Estonians there are more high level specialists, whereas among the other nationalities there are more skilled workers and manual labourers.

Book Details

Women are more likely to work as top specialists, service- and salespersons, clerks and manual labourers. Men are often working as managers, skilled workers and machine operators. Primary field. Secondary field. Third field. Source: Angela Poolakese - The study of wellfare of the elderly In this table there are considered people from ages Estonia is one of the leading countries when we are talking about the rate of employment of the elderly.

At the same time it might not be enough to ensure the sustainability of the society since our population is aging fairly fast. At the moment there are 2 retirees per 3 workers and it is predicted that after 40 years there will be only 1 worker per 1 retired person.

Population ageing: Facing the challenge

In terms of aging population, where the rate of the dependants is growing, it is essential to support the continuity of elderly employment. In the Study of Welfare of the Elderly the author tried to find out how well do the older people adapt to using modern tools in their everyday lives. Internet bank. E-income statement. The use of computers for communication MSN, Skype. The use of e-signature. First level. Second level. Third level. Working retiree. What should we do in Estonia to enhance the working opportunities for the older generation?

According to the evaluation of the Centre for European Policy Studies the labour market structure is not the main problem when it comes to accomplishing a higher employment rate and a raise of productivity. Therefore the countries should invest in education and retraining. Since most of the information is located on the Internet, the knowledge and use of e-working would surely enhance the opportunities to be actively involved in different working fields.

How can one conciliate ageing, employment and decent income? Quite graphic, the first part of the presentation is based upon the display of four charts. With less than 1. No less dramatic is the third chart on which EU public pension spending as a percentage of the gross domestic product has been plotted, forming a simple yet quickly ascending curve, quasi linearly ranging from about Focussing on the bad French unemployment figures, the fourth graphical slide gives a visual idea of unemployment over the period of time from April to November Reacting 8th slide. What about employers?

In France the answer is not in government measures, it lies in the capacity of changing mentalities at all levels: employers, employees and within the general population, even going as far as presenting to young children elementary school a different view on the elderly and ageing.


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